Tag Archives: adductor

Foam Roller: Adductor Relief

The adductor muscles are the muscles that run along your inner thigh. Tight adductor muscles are a common reason why people feel tight in the hips. Tight adductors can inhibit your glutes which can affect compound movements such as squats and lunges. Keeping the adductors loose is very important for hip mobility and to obtain the proper form of lower leg exercises.

To foam roll the adductors, you are going to have to get into an awkward beginning position. But it works.

Read the general instructions on how to foam rolling, here.

Pelvic region

The pelvic region of the trunk is the lower part of the trunk, between the abdomen and the thighs. It includes several structures:

  • the bony pelvis (or pelvic skeleton), which is the part of the skeleton embedded in the pelvic region of the trunk, subdivided into:
    • the pelvic girdle (i.e., the two hip bones), which connects the spine to the lower limbs, and
    • the pelvic region of the spine (i.e., sacrum, and coccyx)
  • the pelvic cavity, defined as a small part of the space enclosed by the bony pelvis, delimited by the pelvic brim above and the pelvic floor below; also subdivided into:
    • the greater (or false) pelvis, above the pelvic brim
    • the lesser (or true) pelvis, below the pelvic brim
  • the pelvic floor (or pelvic diaphragm), below the pelvic cavity
  • the perineum, below the pelvic floor

So, as you imagine, there are a lot of muscles in this region. Let´s focus on the muscles of the hip.

Pelvic region

Posterior muscle groupTensor fascia latae

· Tensor fasciae latae muscle: Assist in keeping the balance of the pelvis while standing, walking or running. Medial rotation and flexion of the hip. Assist weakly with the extension of the knee, lateral rotation of the leg at the knee. Also stabilizes the hip and the knee during standing.

Origin:
anterior aspect of iliac crest
anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
Insertion: anterior aspect of IT band, below greater trochanter

· Gluteus maximus: When the gluteus maximus takes its fixed point from the pelvis, it extends the acetabula femoral joint and brings the bent thigh into a line with the body. Taking its fixed point from below, it acts upon the pelvis, supporting it and the trunk upon the head of the femur; this is especially obvious in standing on one leg.

Its most powerful action is to cause the body to regain the erect position after stopping, by drawing the pelvis backward, being assisted in this action by the biceps femoris (long head), semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and adductor Magnus.

The lower part of the muscle also acts as an adductor and external rotator of the limb. The upper fibers act as abductors of the hip joints.

Origin:
1. outer rim of ilium (medial aspect)
2. dorsal surface of sacrum and coccyx
3. sacrotuberous ligament
Insertion:
1. IT band (primary insertion)
2. gluteal tuberosity of femur

· Gluteus medius: with the leg in neutral position, it works with the gluteus minimus to pull the thigh away from the midline (abduct the thigh). During gait, supports the body on one leg, in conjunction with the tensor fasciae latae muscle to prevent the pelvis from dropping to the opposite side. With the hip flexed, it works with the gluteus minimus to rotate the hip. With the hip extended, both externally rotate the thigh.

Origin:
1. outer aspect of ilium (between iliac crest and anterior and posterior gluteal lines)
2. upper fascia (AKA gluteal aponeurosis)
Insertion: superior aspect of greater trochanter

· Gluteus minimus: with the leg in neutral position, it works with the gluteus medius to pull the thigh away from the midline (abduct the thigh). During gait, supports the body on one leg, in conjunction with the tensor fasciae latae muscle to prevent the pelvis from dropping to the opposite side. With the hip flexed, it works with the gluteus medius to rotate the hip. With the hip extended, both externally rotate the thigh.

Origin: outer aspect of ilium (between anterior and inferior gluteal lines)
Insertion:
1. greater trochanter (anterior to medius)
2. articular capsule of hip joint

Gluteus muscles

If you want to build a better butt, don´t forget to read Marlton Trainer series.

Ventral hip muscle group

· Piriformis: laterally rotates the femur with hip extension and abducts the femur with hip flexion. When the hip is flexed to 90 degrees, piriformis abducts the femur at the hip and reverses primary function, internally rotating the hip when the hip is flexed at 90 degrees or more.

Origin: pelvic surface of sacrum (anterior portion)
Insertion: medial surface of greater trochanter (through greater sciatic foramen)

Piriformis

· External obturator muscle: acts as the lateral rotator of the hip joint. As a short muscle around the hip joint, it stabilizes the hip joint as a postural muscle.

Origin:
1. medial surface of obturator foramen
2. external surface of obturator membrane
Insertion: trochanteric fossa of femur

· Internal obturator muscle: helps laterally rotate femur with hip extension and abduct femur with hip flexion, as well as to steady the femoral head in the acetabulum.

Origin:
1. internal aspect margins of obturator foramen
2. obturator membrane
Insertion: medial aspect of greater trochanter (through lesser sciatic foramen)

· Quadratus femoris: it is a strong external rotator and adductor of the thigh, but also acts to stabilize the femoral head in the Acetabulum.

Origin: lateral aspect of ischial tuberosity
Insertion: quadrate line (along posterior aspect of femur and intertrochanteric crest)

Dorsal hip muscle group

· Psoas major: contributes to flexion in the hip joint. On the lumbar spine, unilateral contraction bends the trunk laterally while bilateral contraction raises the trunk from its supine position.

Origin:
1. transverse processes of L1-L5
2. vertebral bodies of T12-L4 and the intervening intervertebral discs
Insertion: iliopsoas tendon to the lesser trochanter of the femur

psoas

· Psoas minor: is a weak flexor of the lumbar vertebral column.

· Iliacus: is important for lifting (flexing) the femur forward. From its origin in the lesser pelvis, the iliacus acts exclusively on the hip joint.

Origin: inner surface of upper iliac fossa
Insertion: iliopsoas tendon to the lesser trochanter of the femur

The thigh

The thigh is the area between the pelvis and the knee. We divide the thigh into three compartments: anterior, medial, and posterior.

Anterior compartment muscles

Thigh Anterior
· SartoriusIt is the longest muscle in the body. It assists in flexing, weak abduction and lateral rotation of the hip, and knee flexion.

Origin:
anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)


Insertion:
1. upper medial surface of body of tibia


· Quadriceps femoris: It is the knee extensor muscle.  It´s subdivided into four separate “heads”:

Rectus femoris: It is the only muscle of the group which crosses the hip joint and is a powerful knee extensor when the hip is extended, but is weak when the hip is flexed.

Origin:
1. anterior head: anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS)
2. posterior head: ilium just above the acetabulum


Insertion:
1. common quadriceps tendon into patella
2. tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

Vastus lateralis or externus: It´s the largest part of the quadriceps femoris.

Origin:
1. greater trochanter
2. lateral lip of linea aspera
3. lateral intermuscular septum


Insertion:
1. common quadriceps tendon into patella
2. tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament


Vastus medialis: It is the deeper muscle of the quadriceps muscle group. The intern is the most difficult to stretch once maximum knee flexion is attained. It can´t be further stretched by hip extension as the rectus femoris can, nor is it accessible to manipulate with massage therapy to stretch the fibres as the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis are.


Origin:
1. intertrochanteric line of femur
2. medial aspect of linea aspera


Insertion:
1. common quadriceps tendon into patella
2. tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament


Vastus intermedius: It contributes to correct tracking of the patella.


Origin:
anterior lateral aspect of the femoral shaft


Insertion:
1. common quadriceps tendon into patella
2. tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

As a group, the quadriceps femoris is crucial in walking, running, jumping and squating.

Medial compartment muscles

Medial Thigh

· Gracilis: Is the most superficial muscle of the medial side. It adducts, medially rotates and flexes the hip, and aids in flexion of the knee.


Origin:
body of pubis & inferior pubic ramus


Insertion:
1. medial surface of proximal tibia, inferior to tibial condyle


Pectineus: It is the most anterior adductor of the hip. Its primary function is hip flexion. Also, it adducts and medially rotates the thigh.


Origin:
1. pectineal line of the pubis
2. superior pubic ramus


Insertion:
1. the pectineal line of the femur
2. (just below the lesser trochanter on the posterior aspect of the femur)

· Adductor brevis: immediately deep to the pectineus and adductor longus, the adductor brevis pulls the thigh medially. Also stabilizes the movements of the trunk when standing on both feet,m or to balance when standing on a moving surface. Primarily known as a hip adductor, it also functions as a hip flexor.

Origin:
body & inferior ramus of pubis


Insertion:
superior portion of linea aspera


Adductor longus: Adducts the thigh and medially rotate.


Origin:
anterior surface of pubis, just inferior to the pubic tubercle


Insertion:
medial lip of linea aspera on middle half of femur


Adductor magnus: Powerful adductor of the thigh made especially active when the legs are moved from a widespread position to one in which the legs parallel each other.


 Origin:
1. anterior fibers: inferior pubic ramus
2. oblique fibers: ischial ramus
3. posterior fibers: ischial tuberosity


Insertion:
1. proximal 1/3 of linea aspera
2. adductor tubercle

The adductor muscle group is used pressing the thighs together to ride a horse, kicking with the inside of the foot in soccer or swimming. They contribute to flexion of the thigh when running or against resistance (squatting, jumping…)


Posterior compartment muscles
Thigh Posterior
· Biceps femoris: It has two parts or “heads”. Both heads perform knee flexión. The long head (1 of the three hamstring muscles) is involved in hip extension. It is a weaker flexor when the hip is extended as well as a weaker hip extender when the knee is flexed. When the knee is semiflexed, the biceps femoris rotates the leg slightly outward.


Origin:
1. long head: ischial tuberosity
2. short head: lateral lip of linea aspera and the lateral intermuscular septum


Insertion:
1. head of fibula
2. maybe to the lateral tibial condyle


Semimembranosus: It helps to extend the hip joint and flex the knee. Also medially rotates the femur when the hip is extended. It can counteract the forward bending at the hip joint.

Origin:
ischial tuberosity


Insertion:
1. posterior medial aspect of medial tibial condyle
2. fibers join to form most of oblique popliteal ligament (& medial meniscus)


Semitendinosus: It lies between the other two muscles. Collectively flex the knee and extend the hip.


Origin:
ischial tuberosity


Insertion:
1. medial aspect of tibial shaft
2. contributes to the pez anserine

Danke steht in vielen Sprachen auf einer Tafel mit lächelndem Kind daneben