The thigh

The thigh is the area between the pelvis and the knee. We divide the thigh into three compartments: anterior, medial, and posterior.

Anterior compartment muscles

Thigh Anterior
· SartoriusIt is the longest muscle in the body. It assists in flexing, weak abduction and lateral rotation of the hip, and knee flexion.

anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)

1. upper medial surface of body of tibia

· Quadriceps femoris: It is the knee extensor muscle.  It´s subdivided into four separate “heads”:

Rectus femoris: It is the only muscle of the group which crosses the hip joint and is a powerful knee extensor when the hip is extended, but is weak when the hip is flexed.

1. anterior head: anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS)
2. posterior head: ilium just above the acetabulum

1. common quadriceps tendon into patella
2. tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

Vastus lateralis or externus: It´s the largest part of the quadriceps femoris.

1. greater trochanter
2. lateral lip of linea aspera
3. lateral intermuscular septum

1. common quadriceps tendon into patella
2. tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

Vastus medialis: It is the deeper muscle of the quadriceps muscle group. The intern is the most difficult to stretch once maximum knee flexion is attained. It can´t be further stretched by hip extension as the rectus femoris can, nor is it accessible to manipulate with massage therapy to stretch the fibres as the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis are.

1. intertrochanteric line of femur
2. medial aspect of linea aspera

1. common quadriceps tendon into patella
2. tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

Vastus intermedius: It contributes to correct tracking of the patella.

anterior lateral aspect of the femoral shaft

1. common quadriceps tendon into patella
2. tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

As a group, the quadriceps femoris is crucial in walking, running, jumping and squating.

Medial compartment muscles

Medial Thigh

· Gracilis: Is the most superficial muscle of the medial side. It adducts, medially rotates and flexes the hip, and aids in flexion of the knee.

body of pubis & inferior pubic ramus

1. medial surface of proximal tibia, inferior to tibial condyle

Pectineus: It is the most anterior adductor of the hip. Its primary function is hip flexion. Also, it adducts and medially rotates the thigh.

1. pectineal line of the pubis
2. superior pubic ramus

1. the pectineal line of the femur
2. (just below the lesser trochanter on the posterior aspect of the femur)

· Adductor brevis: immediately deep to the pectineus and adductor longus, the adductor brevis pulls the thigh medially. Also stabilizes the movements of the trunk when standing on both feet,m or to balance when standing on a moving surface. Primarily known as a hip adductor, it also functions as a hip flexor.

body & inferior ramus of pubis

superior portion of linea aspera

Adductor longus: Adducts the thigh and medially rotate.

anterior surface of pubis, just inferior to the pubic tubercle

medial lip of linea aspera on middle half of femur

Adductor magnus: Powerful adductor of the thigh made especially active when the legs are moved from a widespread position to one in which the legs parallel each other.

1. anterior fibers: inferior pubic ramus
2. oblique fibers: ischial ramus
3. posterior fibers: ischial tuberosity

1. proximal 1/3 of linea aspera
2. adductor tubercle

The adductor muscle group is used pressing the thighs together to ride a horse, kicking with the inside of the foot in soccer or swimming. They contribute to flexion of the thigh when running or against resistance (squatting, jumping…)

Posterior compartment muscles
Thigh Posterior
· Biceps femoris: It has two parts or “heads”. Both heads perform knee flexión. The long head (1 of the three hamstring muscles) is involved in hip extension. It is a weaker flexor when the hip is extended as well as a weaker hip extender when the knee is flexed. When the knee is semiflexed, the biceps femoris rotates the leg slightly outward.

1. long head: ischial tuberosity
2. short head: lateral lip of linea aspera and the lateral intermuscular septum

1. head of fibula
2. maybe to the lateral tibial condyle

Semimembranosus: It helps to extend the hip joint and flex the knee. Also medially rotates the femur when the hip is extended. It can counteract the forward bending at the hip joint.

ischial tuberosity

1. posterior medial aspect of medial tibial condyle
2. fibers join to form most of oblique popliteal ligament (& medial meniscus)

Semitendinosus: It lies between the other two muscles. Collectively flex the knee and extend the hip.

ischial tuberosity

1. medial aspect of tibial shaft
2. contributes to the pez anserine

Danke steht in vielen Sprachen auf einer Tafel mit lächelndem Kind daneben

Lower leg muscles

The gastrocnemius is in the back of the lower leg. Deep to the gastrocnemius (farther from the skin) is the soleus muscle. They share a common insertion via the Achille´s tendon.

Acting via the Achille´s tendon, the gastrocnemius and soleus cause plantar flexion. That is, they increase the angle between the foot and the leg. The soleus plays an important role in maintaining standing posture. Together, the gastrocnemius and the soleus are involved in walking, dancing, running, jumping…

Calf injuries usually occur through a sudden pushing off force or an over-stretching of the calf muscles such as in jumping or changing direction quickly. A calf strain usually occurs at the muscular tendinous junction where the muscles meet the achilles tendon. If the Soleus muscle is damaged there may be pain lower in the leg and also pain when you contract the muscle against resistance with the knee bent.

A calf muscle tear is graded from 1 to 3, with grade 3 being the most severe.

Grade 1 symptoms

Grade 1 calf strain is a minor tear with up to 10% of the muscle fibers effected. The athlete will feel a twinge of pain in the back of the lower leg. They may be able to carry on playing or competing in mild discomfort. There is likely to be tightness and aching in the calf muscles two to five days after injury.

Grade 2 symptoms

Symptoms of a grade 2 strain will be more severe than a grade one with up to 90% of the muscle fibers torn. A sharp pain at the back of the lower leg will be felt with significant pain walking. There is likely to be swelling in the calf muscle with mild to moderate bruising. Pain will be felt on resisted plantar flexion or pushing the foot downwards against resistance. There may be tightness and aching in the calf muscle for a week or more.

Grade 3 symptoms

There will be severe immediate pain at the back of the lower leg. The athlete will be unable to continue and unable to walk. There will be considerable bruising and swelling appearing and the athlete will be unable to even contract the calf muscle. In the case of a full rupture, often there is deformity where the muscle can be seen to be bunched up towards the top of the calf. A grade three is a near, or complete rupture of the muscle.

Lower Leg Posterior


1. medial head: just above medial condyle of femur
2. lateral head: just above lateral condyle of femur

Insertion: calcaneus via lateral portion of calcaneal tendon
1. plantarflex the ankle
2. knee flexion (when not weight bearing)
3. stabilizes ankle & knee when standing


1. upper fibula
2. soleal line of tibia

Insertion: calcaneus via medial portion of calcaneal tendon
Action: plantarflex the foot

Danke steht in vielen Sprachen auf einer Tafel mit lächelndem Kind daneben




Liebster award

Thank you wwwpalfitness for nominating me 🙂
blog award
I have nominated:
Questions for me:
 1. How old were you when you decided to write
It was not a decision. It just happened 🙂
 2. What do you write about
Fitness and nutrition
 3. What is your favorite weather
 4. What are your most enjoyed hobbies
Reading, travelling, pets, English, basketball, yoga
 5. Who do you look up to and why
 6. How would say your diet and exercise levels are
 7. What types of movies do you watch
Except romance, you name it.
 8. What is your most enjoyed music
Something like this
 9. Do you cook or order out or more
I prefer to cook
 10. Are you an indoors or outdoor person
 11. Do you have pets and if so how many and what types
Yes. One dog (Ari) and three cats (Wilma. Face & Twitter), all of them females.
Questions for my nominees
  1. What are your most enjoyed hobbies?
  2. Your favourite song?
  3. And your favourite book?
  4. Where would you like to live?
  5. What do you write about?
  6. What keeps you motivated to keep blogging?
  7. Who do you look up to and why?
  8. Which other languages would you want to learn?
  9. Do you have pets?
  10. Your best recipe?
  11. We live in Matrix. Red pill or Blue pill?
Liebster Award´s Rules:
1   Make a post thanking and linking the person who nominated me.
2   Include the Liebster Award sticker in the post.
3    Nominate 5-10 other bloggers and notify them of this on of their posts.
4    All nominated bloggers are to have less than 200 followers.
5.   Answer the 11 questions posed by your nominator and create 11 different questions for your nominees to answer. Or, you can repeat the same questions.
6.  Copy these rules into your post.
Danke steht in vielen Sprachen auf einer Tafel mit lächelndem Kind daneben
Danke steht in vielen Sprachen auf einer Tafel mit lächelndem Kind daneben

Muscle #1

Let´s talk about muscles. How many muscles are there in the human body? It´s hard to say. Usually, the number oscillates between 640 to 850 named muscles. It depends on how you count them.

There is more agreement to classify them into three categories: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth.

If the cardiac muscle doesn´t work right, the whole system doesn´t work. Often, healthy people forget this point. Fitness is about good looking but also, about good health. The primary muscle of every single athlete is the heart.

Cardiac muscle is a striated muscle, but its contractions are involuntary. Some of the cardiac muscle cells are autorhythmic. They contract even in the absence of neuronal innervation (known as pacemaker cells). Between cardiac muscles cells, there are disks intercalated. These disks contain gap junctions which provide communicating channels between cells.

Inactivity is one of the major risk factors for heart disease. Exercise helps improve heart health, and can reverse some heart disease risk factors.

The heart becomes stronger as a result of exercise, so it can pump more blood through the body with every beat. Any amount of exercise is beneficial. If you are a sedentary person, aim for 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity (such as brisk walking) at least 5 days a week. Experts recommend doing some form of moderate aerobic activity for at least 150 minutes or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity each week. You can spread the minutes out in any manner that works for your schedule. The key is scheduling some form of moderate to vigorous cardiovascular activity into your week and actually doing it. You can also switch between running, cycling, swimming, interval or circuit training.

Regular exercise, especially aerobic exercise, has many benefits. This type of activity can do the following:

  • Strengthen your heart and cardiovascular system
  • Improve your circulation and help your body use oxygen better
  • Improve your heart failure symptoms
  • Increase energy levels so you can do more activities without becoming tired or short of breath
  • Increase endurance
  • Lower blood pressure
  • Improve muscle tone and strength
  • Improve balance and joint flexibility
  • Strengthen bones
  • Help reduce body fat and help you reach a healthy weight
  • Help reduce stress, tension, anxiety and depression
  • Boost self-image and self-esteem
  • Improve sleep
  • Make you feel more relaxed and rested
  • Make you look fit and feel healthy

In time, you can make your workouts longer or more challenging. Do that gradually, so your body can adjust.

Stop and get immediate medical help if you have pain or pressure in your chest or the upper part of your body, break out in a cold sweat, have trouble breathing, uneven heart rate, or feel dizzy, lightheaded, or very tired.

It’s normal for your muscles to be sore for a day or two after your workout when you’re new to exercise. That fades as your body gets used to it. Soon, you might be surprised to find that you like how you feel when you’re done.

Danke steht in vielen Sprachen auf einer Tafel mit lächelndem Kind daneben
Danke steht in vielen Sprachen auf einer Tafel mit lächelndem Kind daneben


Hi, my name is David but you can call me Chape. Foto PerfilI’m 37 years young 🙂 Twenty years ago I joined a gym. My goal was to gain muscle mass, of course. I grew up with Terminator, Rambo and all that stuff, what did you expect? As a child, I had asthma and allergies. My goals then were even more modest. It was a long way from being unable to breathe after 100m run for hours to play basketball with friends. No doubt it was worth it. It is funny how goals change over time, they change with us. Sometimes the goals are not dependent on oneself, are dictated.

Playing sports is to learn about injuries, colds and lots of annoying things that force you to stop. When all that you want is to achieve your goal.

While I was gaining muscle mass, it came the opportunity to study and become a personal trainer. I think every athlete should know his body. Know muscles, bones, tendons by their names should be not a goal for beginners but a compulsory subject. My goal is to provide you information on the subject in the next weeks. I promise it won´t be boring 🙂

Speaking of funny goals. As I said I love basketball. A few years ago I met and drunk with the one and only Dennis Rodman!

Back Camera


Danke steht in vielen Sprachen auf einer Tafel mit lächelndem Kind daneben
Danke steht in vielen Sprachen auf einer Tafel mit lächelndem Kind daneben

You are never too old

You are never too old CSLewis

“You are never too old to set another goal or to dream a new dream” C. S. Lewis Photo: Galicia´s summer sky, where the rain is an art 🙂 #motivation #quotes #quoteoftheday

Overtraining and recovery

Overtraining is the result of an exercise program that exceeds the resilience of the athlete. It goes far beyond simple fatigue after a hard workout. A few days of rest will not reduce the fatigue and maybe even weeks are not enough.

The American Medical Association defines overtraining as “a physiological and psychological condition that manifests as a state of deterioration of athletic disposition”.

The overtrained athlete becomes weaker and slower, has less resistance and usually have trouble maintaining body weight.

An increase in resting heart rate and time back to normal after exercise, indigestion, insomnia, lack of appetite, as well as increased muscle pain are also common.

In the psychological aspect, often experience depression, lack of motivation and irritability. If you have several of these symptoms: disconnect.

The causes of overtraining? Monotony in training routines, excessive daily activities, concerns, poor diet, psychological pressures to achieve goals, chronic use of stimulants…

Cant Stop

Overtraining is far away from you. To keep it that way, let me introduce you a key concept for any athlete: “Recovery”.

Total rest or active rest? Our training plan must take into account the time needed to regenerate our body, allowing go further, preventing injuries and overtraining.

The total rest would be advisable for the day after a race, game or any major competition.

The active rest help us to recover in a shorter period of time after a training session. The goal is to provide nutrients and oxygen to muscles, never to gain strength or endurance. In this regard, the rate of recovery training should be slow and smooth.

Take a bike ride, without haste and without slopes. A dip in the pool, regardless of style. A relaxing stroll followed by a brief stretching session. These are easy ways to make a day of active rest. Enjoy!

Danke steht in vielen Sprachen auf einer Tafel mit lächelndem Kind daneben
Danke steht in vielen Sprachen auf einer Tafel mit lächelndem Kind daneben

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